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Last update: Jan 2012

Iodized salt consumption

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Country Year Test method Cut-off level (PPM) % HH Tested % HH no salt Proportion of household consuming iodized salt (%)
by level of iodization
Urinary iodine tested
(Y/N)
Source
0 ppm
(No iodine)
1-14 ppm (Inadequate) > 15 ppm (Adequate) > 0 ppm (Any iodine) Other cutoff
Afghanistan2004not specified28.0Summary Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2004, p. 2.
Albania2008-2009RTK15+98.91.18.515.975.691.5NDHS 2008-2009, Final report, Table 11.7, p. 164
Algeria2006RTK15+98.80.460.7NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Andorra
Angola2007RTK15+19.835.544.780.2NAngola Nutrition Survey 2007, Table 8, p. 24
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina1996not specified90.0Fax Reference: BUE/NY/035/96 UNICEF Country Office, 27 February 1996.
Armenia2005RTK15+0.80.42.597.199.6NDHS 2005, Final Report, Table 12.10, p. 156
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan2006RTK15+99.10.95.440.853.894.6NDHS 2006, Final report, Table 12.9, p. 151
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh2006RTK10+98.71.084.3NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Barbados
Belarus2008not specifiednot specified94NIDD Programme Evaluation 2010, p. 4
Belgium
Belize1994not specified90Ministry of Health, 1994.
Benin2008RTK15+96.43.68.424.467.291.6Analyse Globale de la Vulnérabilité, de la Sécurité Alimentaire et de la Nutrition (AGVSAN) 2008, Annex 7, Table 52, p. 141
Bhutan2002not specified96.2UNICEF, Anaemia Among Men, Women and Children in Bhutan 2002, p. 28.
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)2008RTKnot specified95.288.788.7DHS 2008, Final report, Table 11.12, p. 225
Bosnia and Herzegovina200520+62.0UNICEF and MOH, Iodine Status of the Population of Bosnia-Herzegovina 2006, Table 13, p. 46.
Botswana2007RTK15+77.365.2FHS 2007, Table 8.7, pg 67
Brazil2006not specified95.7MOH, PNDS 2006, Table 5, p. 280
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria200615+100.0MOH (Ref. 48-06-5) 2006.
Burkina Faso2006RTK15+93.01.333.7MICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Burundi2005RTKnot specified87.098Rapport de l'Enquête Nationale de Nutrition de la Population, 2006. Table 24, p. 36.
Cambodia2010RTK098.61.318.382.7NDHS 2010, Preliminary report, Table 15, p. 32
Cameroon2006RTK25+89.49.149.1
Canada
Cape Verde2008RTK15+2.822.474.897.2Iodized Salt Monitoring 2008, Table 1 (Annex), p. 14
Central Africa Republic2006RTK15+79.81.13.918.876.295.0MICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, May 2007. Pg 55; Table 5
Chad2004RTK15+19.99.055.864.8DHS 2004, Final Report, Table 2.7, p. 28.
Chile199920+100.0MOH, 1999
China2010Titration20-5096.6YNational IDD Surveillance Report 2010, p. 3
Colombia1997not specified92MOH, UNICEF, OPS and OMS, Control de los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo en Colombia 1998, p.14.
Comoros2000RTK15+87.85.782.2MICS 2000, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, December 2002.
Congo2005RTK15+87.610.52.915.182.097.1DHS 2005, Final Report, Table 11.5, p. 164.
Democratic Republic of the Congo2010RTK15+58.6NMICS 2010, Preliminary report, Table NU.9
Cook Islands
Costa Rica1996not specified92National Nutrition Survey 1996.
Côte d’Ivoire2004not specified84MOH and UNICEF, Evaluation de la Lutte Contre les Troubles dus à la Carence en Iodé en Côte d’Ivoire 2004, Final Report, p. 26.
Croatia1999not specified90Analysis Report of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health and UNICEF Croatia, 2000.
Cuba200515+88.0ONE, National Survey of Nutrition and Food Hygiene 2005.
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti2006RTK15+90.30.70.4MICS 2006, Final report, Table C.III.4, p. 57
Dominica
Dominican Republic200615+18.5ONE, ENHOGAR 2006.
Ecuador1999not specified99Ministry of Public Health, National Program of Bocio-MSP, 1999.
Egypt2008RTK15+98.41.32.219.178.797.8NDHS 2008, Final report, Table 13.7, p. 177
El Salvador200215+62.0Ministro de Salud, Situación de los Alimentos Fortificados en El Salvador, 2002, p. 4.
Equatorial Guinea2000RTK15+33.3MICS 2000, Final Report, p. 24.
Eritrea2002RTK15+96.02.725.76.468.074.4NDHS 2002, Final Report, Table 10.7, p. 172.
Estonia
Ethiopia2005RTK15+98.70.145.734.419.954.3NDHS 2005, Final Report, Table 11.6, p. 151.
Fiji1994not specified31National IDD Survey 1994.
Finland
France
Gabon200115+36.0Rapport Enquête Nationale sur les Troubles Dus a la Carence en Lode au Gabon 2001, Table 18, p. 38.
Gambia2010RTK15+89.110.737.430.821.151.9NMICS 2010, Preliminary report, Table NU.9
Georgia200915+99.9National Nutrition Survey 2009, Table 20, p. 44
Germany
Ghana2006RTK15+91.57.741.518.432.450.8NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007. pg. 25; Table NU.5
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala200715+76.0The Situation of Food Fortification 2007, Final report, p. 5
Guinea200892.56.244.655.4NEnquête Nationale sur l'état nutritionnel et le suivi des indicateurs de Survie de l'Enfant (ENENSE), Table 6.1a
Guinea-Bissau2010RTK15+97.32.271.414.611.726.3N
Guyana2009RTK15+93.079.89.710.520.2NDHS 2009, Final report, Table 11.7, p. 180
Haiti2005-2006RTK15+75.589.57.33.110.4NDHS 2005-2006, Final Report, Table 11.6, p. 156
Holy See
Honduras199825+80.0Informe del Depto de Control de Alimentos de la Sec, Salud sobre la Encuesta de Hogares, Componente de Micronutrientes, 2000.
Hungary
Iceland
India2005-2006RTK15+23.925.051.176.1NNational Family Health Survey 2005-2006 Table 10.17
Indonesia200730+62.3Basic Health Research 2007, Table 3.22 & 3.23, p.61 & 62
Iran2005not specified98.7MOH, Anthropometric Nutritional Indicator Survey II, 2005.
Iraq2006RTK15+99.40.245.226.128.454.5NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica1999not specified100
Japan
Jordan2000not specified88.3MOH and UNICEF, Assessment of IDD Among Jordanian Children After Introduction of Iodized Salt 2000.
Kazakhstan2006RTK15+99.80.392.0NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, May 2007.
Kenya2008-2009RTK15+94.55.50.22.297.699.8NDHS 2008-2009, Final report, Table 11.9, p. 157
Kiribati
Democratic People's Republic of Korea2009RTKnot specified100.052.023.524.548.0NMICS 2009, Final report, Table NU.9, p. 41
Republic of Korea
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan2006RTK15+99.00.376.1NMICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic2006RTK099.40.483.815.883.8NMICS 2006, Final report, Table NU.5, p. 81
Latvia
Lebanon200415+92.0PAPFAM 2004, Preliminary Report, p. 20.
Lesotho2009RTK15+93.26.82.013.784.498.1NDHS 2009, Final report, Table 11.9, p. 150
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya1993not specified90UNICEF Country Office: Nutrition Section / NYHQ database
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar2008-2009RTK15+94.55.528.618.952.671.5DHS 2008-2009, Final report, Table 11.6, p. 189
Malawi2006RTK15+80.618.249.7NMICS 2006, Final report, Table 6.9, p. 70
Malaysia2008RTK15+17.628.2YMalaysia IDD 2008
Maldives2001RTK15+3.045.72.744.146.8NMICS 2001, Final Report, Figure 5.2.
Mali2006RTK15+90.59.58.512.678.991.5DHS 2006, Final report, Table 11.5, p.164
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania2010RTK15+46.427.322.649.9NSMART Survey 2010, Preliminary report, Table 25, p. 38
Mauritius1995not specified0Survey of Nutrition in Mauritius 1995
Mexico200315+91.0Asociación Mexicana de la Industria Salinera, Avances en Yodación de Sal en México, May 2004, p. 16.
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Republic of Moldova2005RTK15+97.139.01.159.860.9NDHS 2005, Final Report, Table 11.4, p. 143.
Monaco
Mongolia2005RTKnot specified98.20.116.883.183.1NMICS 2005, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Montenegro2000RTK15+99.30.370.7NMICS 2000, Final Report from Former Republic of Yugoslavia, Table 17, p. 72.
Morocco2006RTK15+96.90.756.021.821.543.3MICS 2006, Preliminary report, p. 21, Pg 31; Table 3.4
Mozambique2008RTK15+92.65.736.033.325.158.4MICS 2008, Statistical Table NU.5, Pg 27; Table 5.5
Myanmar2007-2008RTK/ Titration15+92.695.1Preliminary report of country-wide school-based survey on availability of iodized salt at household level in Myanmar, Annex 4, p. 20
Namibia2000RTK15+89.88.617.219.962.982.862.9NDHS 2000, Final Report, Table 2.10, p. 22&23.
Nauru
Nepal200015+62.6BCHIMES 2000, Final Report, Table 6.1, p. 68.
Netherlands
New Zealand1996-1999not specified83National End-Decade Report 2000.
Nicaragua200315+96.8MOH, SIVIN, Primer Informe de Progreso 2002-2003, Table 10, p. 17.
Niger2010RTK15+99.05.035.027.032.059.0NChild survival and mortality survey 2010, Preliminary report, Table 2.7, p. 26
Nigeria2003RTK15+93.53.81.71.097.398.3NDHS 2003, Final Report, Table 11.7, p. 160
Nigeria2008RTK15+94.25.83.445.151.596.6NDHS 2008, Table 11.8, Page 180.
Niue
Norway
Occupied Palestinian Territory200615+85.7Palestinian Family Health Survey 2006. Preliminary Report. Table 8, p. 40.
Oman2000not specified68.568.5Monitoring Universal Salt Iodization in Oman -2004, table II
Pakistan2002not specified17National Nutrition Survey 2001-2002, Figure 3.5.3, p. 48.
Palau
Panama1998not specified94.6MOH, Sistema de Vigilancia de la Yodacion de la Sal 1998.
Papua New Guinea200615+91.92005 National Micronutrient Survey (Zero Draft), p. 27
Paraguay200620+94.4Programa Nacional de Control y Prevención de los desórdenes por deficiencia de yodo - DDI, Encuesta de consumo a escolares
Peru200415+91.2MOH-INS/CENAN, National Monitoring of Nutritional Indicators 2004, Table 50, p. 101.
Philippines2005RTK/WYD15+44.52005 Updating of the Nutritional Status of Filipino Children and Selected Population Groups, Table 23, p. 28
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania200415+74.0F. Van der Haar, National Nutrition Status Survey 2004, p. 1.
Russian Federation2002-2003not specified35KAP Survey 2000-2003.
Rwanda2005RTK15+86.89.91.211.087.898.8NDHS 2005, Final Report, Table 10.5, p. 138.
Saint Kitts and Nevis2000not specified100Main Health Centre, Child Health.
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe2009RTK15+72.527.55.88.585.694.1NDHS 2009, Final report, Table 11.9, p. 174
Saudi Arabia
Senegal2005RTK15+96.035.922.741.364.0DHS 2005, Final Report, Table 10.8, p. 194.
Serbia2007Not specified15+32.2YNational Survey of the biological impact of Universal Salt Iodization in the Population of Serbia in 2007, p. 32
Seychelles
Sierra Leone2008RTK15+91.58.520.321.658.279.8NDHS 2008, Final report, Table 11.8, p. 160
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia2006RTK15+91.17.41.2MICS 2006, Final report, Table NU.5, p. 83
South Africa1998RTK15+62.4National Research Programme for Nutritional Intervention, Medical Research Council., National Survey of the Iodine Concentration of Household Salt in South Africa 1998.
Spain
Sri Lanka2006-2007Not specified097.17.692.492NDHS 2006-2007, Final report, Table 11.8
Sudan200615+11.0Sudan Household Health Survey, Final report, Table NU.5
Suriname
Swaziland2010RTK15+92.05.78.933.851.685.4NMICS 2010, Preliminary report, Table NU.9, p. 10
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic200515+79.3MoH, Study on the Consumption of Iodized Salt Among Syrian Families, 2006, p. 10
Tajikistan2009RTK15+17.420.861.982.7NMicronutrient Status Survey (MNSS) 2009, Appendix 9, Table 92
United Republic of Tanzania2010RTK15+94.45.618.323.358.581.8NDHS 2010, Final report, Table 11.9, p. 181
Thailand2005-2006Iodine checker machine15+90.147.2NMICS 2005-06, Final report, Table 11, p. 11
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia200520+94.0MOH, Report on the Activities Implemented by the National Committee for Iodine Deficiency 2005.
Timor-Leste200715+59.9Final Statistical Abstract: Timor-Leste Survey of Living Standards 2007, National Statistics Directorate, Timor-Leste, Table 6.70, p 193
Togo2010RTK15+31.6MICS 2010, Preliminary report
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago2006RTK15+85.75.027.8MICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, May 2007.
Tunisia2000RTK15+96.7MICS 2000, Final Report, Table 1.19.
Turkey2008RTK15+95.514.768.9NTDHS 2008, Pg 30, Table 22
Turkmenistan2006RTK15+86.5MICS 2006, reanalysed by UNICEF HQ, April 2007.
Tuvalu
Uganda2006RTK15+88.811.21.52.895.898.6DHS 2006, Final report, Table 12.9, p. 170
Ukraine2005RTK15+90.71.018.3NMICS 2005, Draft Final Report, Table NU.5, p. 11
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan2006RTK15+99.30.318.228.453.181.5NMICS 2006, Final report, Table 11, p. 82
Vanuatu2007RTK15+81.910.922.9NMICS 2007, Final report, Table NU.5, p. 32
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)199815+90.0Instituto Nacional de Nutricion, UNICEF and OPS, Micronutrientes y Calidad de Vida 1999.
Viet Nam2006RTK 15+93.2YMICS 2006, Final report, Table NU.5, p.141
Yemen200315+29.5Family Health Survey 2003, Table 12.5, pp. 129-30.
Zambia2002RTK15+80.016.93.519.177.496.5NDHS 2001-2002, Final Report, Table 11.6, p. 173.
Zimbabwe2007not specified90.92007 National Nutrition Surveillance Assessment
Regional summaries
Africa55
Sub-Saharan Africa53
Eastern and Southern Africa65
West and Central Africa-
Middle East and North Africa48
Asia74
South Asia55
East Asia and Pacific88
Latin America and Caribbean-
CEE/CIS-
Developing world71
Least developed world61
World71

BCHIMES: Between Census Household Information, Monitoring and Evaluation System (Nepal)
DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys
FHS: Family Health Survey (Botswana)
INS/CENAN: Instituto Nacional de Salud/Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición (Peru)
KAP: knowledge, attitude and practice
MOH: Ministry of Health
MSP: Ministerio de Salud Pública (Ecuador)
ONE: Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas (Cuba)
ONE-ENHOGAR: Oficina Nacional de Estadística – Encuesta Nacional de Hogares de Propósitos Multiples (Dominican Republic)
OMS: Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO)
OPS: Organización Panamericana de la Salud (PAHO)
PNDS: Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde (Brazil)
RTK: rapid test kit (for monitoring salt iodization)
SIVIN: Sistema Integrado de Vigilancia de Intervenciones Nutricionales (Nicaragua)
SMART: Standard Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions