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Last update: Jul 2008

References

Ahmadu, Fuambai. 2000. Rites and wrongs: An insider/outsider reflects on power and excision. In Female"Circumcision" in Africa, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, eds. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc.

 

Althaus, Frances A. 1997. Female circumcision: Rite of passage or violation of rights? International Family Planning Perspectives 23(3):130-133.

 

Carr, Dara. 1997. Female genital cutting: Findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys program. Calverton, MD: Macro International Inc.

 

Devey, Muriel. 1997. La Guinée. Paris: Editions Karthala.

 

Direction Nationale de la Statistique (DNS) [Guinée] and Macro International Inc. (MI). 2000. Enquête Démographique et de Santé, Guinée 1999. Calverton, MD: Direction Nationale de la Statistique [Guinée] and Macro International Inc.

 

Droz, Yvan. 2000. Circoncision féminine et masculine en pays kikuyu. Cahiers d'études africaines 158(XL-2):215-240.

 

Gessain, Monique. 1960. Femmes Coniagui (Guinée). In Femmes d'Afrique Noire, D. Paulme, ed. Paris: Mouton & Co.

 

Gruenbaum, Ellen. 2001. The female circumcision controversy: An anthropological perspective. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

 

Hosken, Francis. 1982. The Hosken report: Genital and sexual mutilation of females. Lexington, MA: Women's International Network News.

 

Jackson, Michael. 1977. The Kuranko: Dimensions of social reality in a West African society. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.

 

Leonard, Lori. 2000. Adopting female "circumcision" in southern Chad: The experience of Myabé. In Female "Circumcision" in Africa, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, eds. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc.

 

Locoh, Thérèse. 1998. Pratiques, opinions et attitudes en matière d'excision en Afrique. Population 6:1227-1240.

 

Obermeyer, Carla. 1999. Female genital surgeries: The known, the unknown, and the unknowable. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 13(1):79-105.

 

Leone. In Religion in Africa, T. Blakeley, W. Van Beek, and D. Thompson, eds. London: James Currey.

 

Parker, Melissa. 1995. Rethinking female circumcision. Africa 65(4):506-523.

 

Paulme, Denise. 1954. Les Gens du Riz. Les Kissi de Haute-Guinée. Paris: Librairie Plon.

 

Rivière, Claude. 1971. Mutations sociales en Guinée. Paris: Marcel Rivière and Cie. 34

 

Shell-Duncan, Bettina, and Ylva Hernlund. 2000. Female "Circumcision" in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc.

 

Shell-Duncan, B., W. O. Obiero, and L. A. Muruli. 2000. Women without choices: The debate over medicalization of female genital cutting and its impact on a northern Kenyan community. In Female "Circumcision" in Africa, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, eds. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner Publishers, Inc.

 

TOSTAN. 1999. Eclosion au Sénégal: Pourquoi les populations abandonnent la pratique de l'excision. Washington, DC: USAID.

 

Toubia, Nahid. 1994. Female circumcision as a public health issue. New England Journal of Medicine 331(12):712-716. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). 2000. USAID policy on female genital cutting (FGC). Washington, D.C.: USAID.

 

World Health Organization. 1998. Female genital mutilation: An overview. Geneva: WHO.

 

Yoder, P. Stanley, Papa Ousmane Camara, and Baba Soumaoro. 1999. Female genital cutting and coming of age in Guinea. Calverton, MD: Macro International Inc.