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Last update: Jan 2009

World Fit For Children Goal
Ensure that, by 2015, all children have access to and complete primary education that is free, compulsory and of good quality

Country profiles

To access country data, please click on region:

 

          Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
          East Asia and the Pacific
          Eastern and Southern Africa
          Industrialized countries
          Latin America and the Caribbean
          Middle East and North Africa
          South Asia
          West and Central Africa

 

About the data

These country reports provide the latest detailed, gender-disaggregated statistics on national education systems. The data were collected for a UNICEF project on Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education (GAP), an ongoing assessment of global progress towards gender parity in education. For more information, see the GAP Project website.

 

The data come from two main sources: National statistics collected by governments and compiled by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), and nationally representative household surveys. These are the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), funded by UNICEF; and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Contents of country reports

Country report data are presented in three sections described in detail below:

 

1. Past trends

 

          Pre-primary enrolment 
          Primary attendance or enrolment
          Secondary attendance or enrolment 
          Survival rate to last grade of primary school
          Pupil/teacher ratio
          Education expenditures

 

2. Current state of the education system

 

           Latest data from UNESCO
           Latest survey data, with gender disparity graphs

 

3. Projections to 2015

 

          Primary school net attendance rate
          Secondary school net attendance rate

 

Section 1: Past trends

Section 1, past trends, presents graphs with time series from 1980 to the most recent year. The data are both from administrative records (UNESCO) and from household surveys (DHS and MICS). Up to six graphs are shown for each country.

1 . Pre-primary enrolment 
Indicators: Male and female gross enrolment rate (GER) and net enrolment rate (NER).
Comments: The maximum value for the NER is 100 per cent (when all children of preschool age are in preschool) while the GER can theoretically exceed 100 per cent. At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series and the gender parity index (GPI) are listed.

2. Primary attendance or enrolment
Indicators: Male and female net enrolment rate (NER), male and female net attendance rate (NAR).
Comments: The NER is taken from administrative records compiled by UIS; the NAR is calculated from survey data. The maximum value for both indicators is 100 per cent, which means that all children of primary school age are enrolled in or attending primary school. At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series and the gender parity index (GPI) are listed.


3. Secondary attendance or enrolment
Indicators: Male and female net enrolment rate (NER), male and female net attendance rate (NAR).
Comments: The NER is taken from administrative records compiled by UIS; the NAR is calculated from survey data. The maximum value for both indicators is 100 per cent, which means that all children of secondary school age are enrolled in or attending secondary school. At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series and the gender parity index (GPI) are listed.

 


4. Survival rate to last grade of primary school
Indicators: Male and female survival rate to last grade of primary school.
Comments: This indicator is taken from administrative records (UIS) and calculated from household survey data. The maximum value for the survival rate is 100 per cent, which means that all children entering grade 1 reach the last grade of primary school, with or without repeating a grade. At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series and the gender parity index (GPI) are listed.

 

 


5. Pupil/teacher ratio
Indicators: Pupil/teacher ratio in primary and secondary education.
Comments: The pupil/teacher ratio is taken from administrative records (UIS). Smaller values indicate smaller class sizes. At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series are listed.

 

 

 

 


6. Education expenditures
Indicators: Education expenditures as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), education expenditures as a percentage of total government expenditures.
Comments: The data for these indicators are taken from administrative records (UIS). At the bottom of the graph the most recent values for each time series are listed.


 

 

 

 

Section 2: Current state of the education system

This section presents the most recent estimates from the UNESCO global education database, which covers the years since 1999. A table lists national data on population (from the UN Population Division); official school ages; enrolment in pre-primary, primary and secondary school; entrance and transition; repetition and completion; teaching staff; and expenditures on education.


For each indicator the latest value is presented, if possible disaggregated by gender (total, male, female). The UNESCO database does not have data for all indicators for all countries. Where this is the case, the table with the latest administrative data contains empty fields.

 

If survey data are available, this section also presents estimates based on the latest household survey, in most cases a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). Estimates on school attendance, entrance and transition, and repetition and completion are disaggregated by gender, area of residence (urban, rural), and household wealth (richest 20 per cent and poorest 20 per cent of the population). With survey data it is also possible to list estimates for gender disparity in relation to area of residence and household wealth. These data are presented with six graphs for each country.

 

 1. Primary school net attendance rate (NAR) by gender: The NAR is disaggregated by gender for the country as a whole, urban areas, rural areas, the richest 20 per cent of the population, and the poorest 20 per cent.

 

 

 

 

 

 


2. Gender disparity in primary school: The gender disparity is the difference between the male and female net attendance rate, measured in percentage points: gender disparity = male NAR female NAR. At gender parity this difference is 0 percentage points.

 

 

 

 

 


3. Gender parity index (GPI), primary school: The GPI is the ratio of the female over the male net attendance rate: GPI = female NAR/male NAR. At gender parity the GPI is exactly 1. If the female NAR is smaller than the male NAR the GPI is less than 1. If the female NAR is greater than the male NAR, the GPI is greater than 1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Secondary school net attendance rate (NAR) by gender: See the comments for primary school net attendance rate (chart 1).

 

5. Gender disparity in secondary school: See the comments for gender disparity in primary school (chart 2).

 

6. Gender parity index (GPI), secondary school: See the comments for gender parity index in primary school (chart 3).

 

Section 3: Projections to 2015

Projections for the primary and secondary school net attendance rate (NAR) are only presented for countries with survey data because the calculation method requires access to the microdata from the surveys.

 

1. Predicted primary school net attendance rate (NAR): 
Within a survey dataset, the education status of all household members is determined. This information is used in a logistic regression of education status on the year of birth. The result of the regression indicates the likelihood that a household member born in a certain year has ever attended primary school. The regression lines are then plotted through the male and female primary school net attendance rates in the year of the survey. By continuing to draw the regression lines into the future, the NAR in years following the survey can be projected.

 

 


2. Predicted secondary school net attendance rate (NAR):
A similar approach is used to project net attendance rates at the secondary level. Again, the education status of all household members is identified and this information is used in a logistic regression of education status on the year of birth. The regression results indicate the likelihood that a household member born in a certain year has ever attended secondary school. To project the secondary school NAR, the regression lines are plotted through the male and female secondary school net attendance rates in the year of the survey.


Limitations of the method

The trend in school attendance is based on historical data collected at one point in time and does not take potential disruptions into account. Interventions aimed at increasing school attendance are likely to increase the slope of the trend line. Events like natural disasters or civil war are likely to decrease the slope of the trend line. If a survey was conducted recently, the projection is more precise than if a survey was conducted several years ago. The projected values for years following a survey should therefore be seen as rough estimates.

Data sources

UIS data, 1980-1997, UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), 1999, online database, March 2005.

 

EFA data, 1989-1999, UNESCO, Education for All 2000 Assessment: A decade of education, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Paris, 2000, CD-ROM.

 

UIS data, 1999-present, UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), Paris, 2008, Data Centre, May 2008.

 

Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), ORC Macro, various years.

 

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), UNICEF, various years.